Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. African elephants have larger ears and concave backs while Asian elephants have smaller ears and convex or level backs. Size is the determining factor in agonistic encounters when the individuals have the same condition. Other threats to elephants include habitat destruction and fragmentation.

Female same-sex behaviours have been documented only in captivity where they are known to masturbate one another with their trunks. The dominant tusk, called the master tusk, is generally more worn down, as it is shorter with a rounder tip. Large terrestrial mammals with trunks from Africa and Asia. They appear to show interest in the bones of their own kind, regardless of whether they are related. University of Chicago Press.

Elephants typically have grey skin, but African elephants look brown or reddish after wallowing in coloured mud. They appear to have self-awareness and show empathy for dying or dead individuals of their kind. The Asian elephant also has dorsal bumps on its head and some patches of depigmentation on its skin. Adult males enter a state of increased testosterone known as musth. These cavities give the inside of the skull a honeycomb -like appearance.


Cartilage divides the nostrils at the base. They are typically surrogates for humans with ideal human values.

The Mbuti people of central Africa believe that the souls of their dead ancestors resided in elephants. The majority of an elephant's food intake goes undigested despite the process lasting up to a day. Concepts and Applications. Journal of Molecular Evolution.

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Normally the skin of an Asian elephant is covered with more hair than its African counterpart. Asian elephants have some patches of depigmentation, particularly on the forehead and ears and the areas around them. Elephants are popularly thought of as having an excellent memory.

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By contrast, small mammals such as rodents develop gigantism in these conditions. Cultural depictions of elephants. Original review in Spanish translated with Google Translate.


Elephas celebensis of Sulawesi is believed to have descended from Elephas planifrons. The African elephant has two finger-like extensions at the tip of the trunk that allow it to grasp and bring food to its mouth. The Asian Elephant Population Today. Elephants as Beasts of Burden.

While the elephant brain is larger overall, it is proportionally smaller. Although tough, an elephant's skin is very sensitive.

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Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The muscles of the trunk connect to a bony opening in the skull. Is it reliable and secure? Forest elephants mainly live in equatorial forests but will enter gallery forests and ecotones between forests and savannahs. Elephants were commonly featured in motifs by the stonemasons of the Gothic churches.

The chewing teeth are replaced six times in a typical elephant's lifetime. Without regular mud baths to protect it from burning, insect bites and moisture loss, an elephant's skin suffers serious damage. Teeth are not replaced by new ones emerging from the jaws vertically as in most mammals.

The increase in size led to the development and elongation of the mobile trunk to provide reach. When fighting, they are used to attack and defend, and to protect the trunk.

Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae in the order Proboscidea. By nine months, mouth, trunk and foot coordination is perfected. In Islamic tradition, the year when Muhammad was born is known as the Year of the Elephant.

In southern India, elephant populations may contain family groups, bond groups and possibly clans. The event was conducted to raise awareness of the value of elephants and rhinos, to help mitigate human-elephant conflicts, and to promote anti-poaching activities.


The looped ridges on the molars are narrower in the Asian elephant while those of the African are more diamond-shaped. Elephant crushing Elephant goad Mahout Trainers. Elephant ears have thick bases with thin tips. Elephant gun Howdah pistol.

Extant Proboscidea species by family. These groups appear to interact with each other, especially at forest clearings.